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Leghorn Management Guide


Video - Feed Granulometry

Technical Updates



Gender Sorting before Hatch in Poultry

Options and challenges for various gender-sorting methods.


Feed Granulometry and the Importance of Feed Particle Size in Layers

Differences in particle size within a ration can affect both the digestive system and the performance of the bird, even if the overall nutrient values are similar. Producers, therefore, should frequently evaluate feed particle size distribution and be mindful of the many variables that can affect it.

Thiamin Deficiency in Pullets

Thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is an essential vitamin involved in metabolic energy supply and critical for normal growth and development of poultry. While cases of thiamin deficiency are rare, it is important to recognize the clinical signs and resolve the issue quickly in order to avoid mortality.


8 Tips for Keeping Ranging Birds Indoors

Ranging birds is a standard practice for many farms in the UK and around Europe.

Brooding Management

Optimal management of the brooding environment is essential to achieve the full egg laying potential of a flock. 

Code of Practice for the Prevention of Rodent Infestation on Poultry Farms

Fly Management: Surveillance and Control

Fly control and prevention is essential for success in the rearing and production of egg-laying chickens.

Growing Management of Commercial Pullets (NA)

Productive and profitable layers begin with good quality pullets. Having the correct body weight and body type at the start of egg production will enable pullets to achieve their genetic potential.

Heat Stress in Layers

Periods of high environmental temperatures, often accompanied by high relative humidity, are common in the summer months. Heat stress can profoundly affect the productivity of a flock.

IEC Biosecurity Checklist

Excellent biosecurity is proven to be the most critical tool in helping prevent a wide range of avian disease problems, and can even help egg businesses avoid infection during severe avian influenza outbreaks.

Impact of Tarp Color on Poultry Lighting

In recent years, the impact of light color, spectrum, and bulb style have been shown to impact growing pullets and laying production. 

Infrared Beak Treatment

Infrared beak treatment (IRBT) technology provides an efficient, precise and fully automated alternative to hot blade beak trimming, performed in the hatchery at one day of age.

Managing Fully Beaked Flocks

Management of fully beaked flocks requires more consideration and input relative to beak-treated flocks.

Non-Fasting Molt Recommendations

Molting is a natural behavior of birds where older, worn feathers are replaced with new feathers. During a molt, birds reduce nutritive intake and enter into a rest period where there is a cessation of reproductive activities.

Pre-Housing Cleaning, Disinfection and Maintenance Checklist for Rearing and Layer Facilities

Understanding Nesting Behavior

In cage-free facilities the nesting behavior of hens is an important economic trait.

Understanding Poultry Lighting

Light is an essential aspect of poultry production. Understanding the different lighting options available for poultry, as well as the terminology and management of light, is essential to achieve the best production.

Vaccination Recommendations

Certain diseases are too widespread or difficult to eradicate and require a routine vaccination program.


Avian Urolithiasis (Visceral Gout)

Visceral gout is a condition of chickens that has been recognized for more than 30 years.

Colibacillosis in Layers

Colibacillosis, a syndrome caused by Escherichia coli, is one of the most common infectious bacterial diseases of the layer industry. E. coli are always found in the gastrointestinal tract of birds and disseminated widely in feces; therefore, birds are continuously exposed through contaminated feces, water, dust and the environment.

Egg Drop Syndrome (EDS)

Egg Drop Syndrome (EDS), initially described in 1976, has since become an important cause of decreased egg production worldwide. It is a viral disease that is thought to have been introduced into chickens through a contaminated vaccine.

Fatty Liver Hemorhaggic Syndrome

Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is a noninfectious disease characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the liver and abdominal cavity, causing liver rupture, hemorrhage and sudden death of hens. Death is the result of internal bleeding. FLHS occurs most commonly in egg-type layers in confinement cage housing.

Focal Duodenal Necrosis (FDN)

Focal duodenal necrosis (FDN) has been observed in cage, cage-free and organic flocks of both brown and white egg layers of all major genetic suppliers. FDN has been diagnosed in the United States and Europe. Most often, FDN is found in multi-age complexes and in flocks housed in facilities with manure belts.

Fowl Pox in Layers

Fowl pox is a common and economically important disease of layers, causing drops in egg production and increased mortality.

Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD, Gumboro)

Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD), also known as Gumboro, is one of the most important diseases to affect layer pullets around the world. It continues to present new challenges as it can genetically mutate into new serotypes and, in some cases, a more virulent virus, thereby complicating vaccination immunity.

Infectious Coryza
Infectious coryza of chickens is an acute upper respiratory infection caused by the bacteria Avibacterium paragallinarum, known for causing decreased production leading to economic losses within affected flocks.

Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT)

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a viral respiratory disease caused by an herpesvirus of chickens and some other gallinaceous birds.

Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI)

Avian influenza (AI) is caused by a type A influenza virus and is distributed worldwide in birds.

MG Control in Layers

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a common respiratory disease in commercial layers around the world.

Mycoplasma Synoviae (MS)

Mycoplasma are the smallest free-living organisms both in size and number of genes, and unlike many other bacteria, they do not have a cell wall. There are two Mycoplasma species, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), which cause disease in chickens. MG is generally the more pathogenic species and causes major economic losses.

Newcastle Disease

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has become enzootic in many areas of Asia, South America, Africa, and the Middle East, causing significant economic losses and production challenges.

Soft-Bone in Cage and Cage-Free Layers

Osteomalacia (sometimes called “Soft-Bone" or "Cage Layer Fatigue") in laying chickens is a common nutritional condition characterized by softening of the keel and leg bones, fatigue and/or depression, lameness, hair-line cracks or roughened shell surfaces on eggs that are laid, and, occasionally, decreases in production.

Performance Standards

Body Weight Calculator (lb) 


Optimizing Egg Size in Commercial Layers (NA)

Maximizing profitability for all commercial egg producers requires the ability to produce larger eggs faster. While egg prices fluctuate, most shell egg producers strive to reach a 48 lb case weight as early as possible and stay close to this case weight throughout lay.

The Science of Egg Quality

Flock health, management, diet and genetic selection all play an important role in achieving the highest quality product for the egg industry’s customers.

Understanding the Role of the Skeleton in Egg Production

The effect of skeletal issues on a flock typically is demonstrated by decreased production, crooked keels, fractures, and poor shell quality.

Samples and Monitoring

Salmonella, Mycoplasma, and Avian Influenza Monitoring in Parent Breeder Flocks

The U.S. Department of Agriculture National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP) is a comprehensive federal, state, and industry cooperative program established to eradicate vertically transmitted diseases of poultry.

Serology and Blood Collection

Diagnostic samples are used to determine health status or identify specific pathogens in pullet, layer, and breeder flocks.


Diagnostic samples are used to determine health status or identify specific pathogens in pullet, layer and breeder flocks. Routine samples include whole blood, serum, formalin-fixed tissue and swabs: tracheal, choanal, oropharyngeal, cloacal, organs and joints.

Tissue Collection and Submission for Histopathology

Histology refers to the evaluation of cells and tissues using a microscope. As a follow-up to the post-mortem exam, histology can be a valuable tool in assessing flock health.